Showbak A lonely reminder of former Crusader glory is Showbak Castle, less than an hour north of Petra. Once called “Mont Real,” Showbak dates from the same turbulent period as Karak. It is perched on the side of a mountain, with a grand sweep of fruit trees below. The castle’s exterior is impressive, with a foreboding gate and encircling triple wall. Despite the precautions of its builder, the fortress fell to Saladin only 75 years after it was raised. Inscriptions by his proud successors appear on the castle wall. Perched on a splendid hilltop overlooking the Jordan Valley and the Sea of Galilee, Umm Qays boasts impressive ancient remains, such as the stunning black basalt theatre, the basilica and adjacent courtyard strewn with nicely carved black sarcophagi, the colonnaded main street and a side street lined with shops, an underground mausoleum, two baths, a nymphaeum, a city gate and the faint outlines of what was a massive hippodrome. Pella Tabqit Fahl Pella is exceptionally rich in antiquities, some of which are exceedingly old.
The Army’s all-women special ops teams show us how we’ll win tomorrow’s wars
This wealthy region, comprising much of what is called the Fertile Crescent , later became a valuable part of larger imperial polities, including sundry Persian, Greek, and Roman dynasties , and after the 7th century it became a central and integral part of the Islamic world. Iraq gained formal independence in but remained subject to British imperial influence during the next quarter century of turbulent monarchical rule. With proven oil reserves second in the world only to those of Saudi Arabia, the regime was able to finance ambitious projects and development plans throughout the s and to build one of the largest and best-equipped armed forces in the Arab world.
He and his regime were toppled in during the Iraq War. It is bordered to the north by Turkey , to the east by Iran , to the west by Syria and Jordan , and to the south by Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Iraq has 36 miles 58 km of coastline along the northern end of the Persian Gulf , giving it a tiny sliver of territorial sea.
In Chaldean culture, as in many other parts of the Middle East, marriage is seen as a link between two families, not simply two individuals. Wedding ceremonies are small, but the receptions draw wide attendance from the Christian community.
Canadians are extremely polite when it comes to mild physical faux pas such as stepping on feet or bumping into others. Often both parties will briefly apologize, including the person who was bumped. Use of the word “sorry” in this context is equivalent to “excuse me”; it should not be considered a submissive gesture. Not waiting at the end of a queue for your turn “cutting in line” is considered extremely rude. This applies in all areas of public interaction.
On public transportation, wait until everyone has exited the door before entering. Pushing through people who are trying to get out is considered extremely rude. When merging on motorways, vehicles from each lane take turns, alternating one at a time from each lane. Pushing through behind another vehicle without allowing the vehicle in the other lane to merge in his turn is considered bad driving.
When walking on sidewalks, or in grocery stores, you are expected to travel on the right. Stand to the right on escalators. It is considered polite to inquire if you are allowed to smoke before lighting a cigarette, except outdoors. This is particularly true when visiting others.
Iraq’s Christians Remain Displaced This Easter
The site subsequently evolved through Greco-Roman and Persian periods, providing unique historic insight into those cultures. ISIS now controls the ancient city and has destroyed shrines, temples and monuments. Hide Caption 2 of 20 Photos: Precious monuments lost in Middle East The Buddhas of Bamiyan, Afghanistan — The most spectacular legacy of Buddhism in the war-torn country, among the tallest standing Buddhas in the world — the larger at 53 meters, the other 35 — had survived over 1, years since being carved out of sandstone.
The Taliban considered the monuments idolatrous and destroyed them with dynamite. Hide Caption 3 of 20 Photos:
All the latest breaking news on Iraq. Browse The Independent’s complete collection of articles and commentary on Iraq. People & culture videos Dating US Edition UK Edition.
Iraq is the classic case. I was opposed to the invasion of that country, not because I had any love for Saddam but because I believed that the alternative would be worse. I was concerned that our invasion would destroy the stability of the Gulf which had, since the fall of the Shah in , depended on a tripod comprising Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia the latter supported by the West. That is exactly what happened and we now find that the Iranians are in a position to dominate the Gulf region.
Internally, the outcome was even worse. The army was disbanded although some would say it disbanded itself. The result was to atomise the social and political structure of the entire country. A while later, elections were held to loud applause from Washington. Indeed, it was the severe disaffection of the Sunni tribes in the North of Iraq that permitted IS to make the rapid territorial gains that have stunned both the West and the governments of the region.
We in the West have little conception of the mutual hatred and contempt between these two Islamic sects. Think of the Protestant and Catholic hatreds, thankfully of the past, and multiply them up. Then add in a regional struggle for power. Where do our interests now lie? We have a humanitarian interest in getting effective aid to the hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing the blood curdling violence of the Islamic fighters.
Iraq makes ‘great progress’ in selecting compromise candidates for president, prime minister
So suggests new research that tracked changes in two genes thought to help regulate brain growth, changes that appeared well after the rise of modern humans , years ago. That the defining feature of humans — our large brains — continued to evolve as recently as 5, years ago, and may be doing so today, promises to surprise the average person, if not biologists. Lahn and colleagues examined two genes, named microcephalin and ASPM, that are connected to brain size.
Dating Arranged marriage is the norm in Indian culture, but Indian teens in the U.S. are sometimes allowed to date under parental guidance and supervision. Both boys and girls are often sent back to India for an arranged marriage.
A CST member smiles with an Afghan girl in Kandahar province in , during a visit to deliver school supplies, food and clothes. Eventually they reached a tiny village where the men of 75th Ranger Regiment were at work seeking the weapons and insurgent who was the target of their mission. They were on nighttime combat operations, learning what Afghan women knew about what was happening in their communities and keeping them separated from the work Rangers were charged with doing nearby.
Violating this tradition would cause grave offense and alienate the same Afghans the United States was and is so eager to win over. Beginning in , U. And that reality translated into more opportunities opening up to American servicewomen who wanted to be part of a mission that mattered at the heart of the battle. As CSTs became a trusted component of these overall operations, some team members took on additional roles and others received commendations for helping to find critical intelligence that would otherwise have gone unfound.
Treadmont and her teammates carried out their assignment for special operations every night and, in the process, CST became the name to which they answered and the family to which they belonged. More than women pdf have died serving their country in Afghanistan and Iraq. And they recruited women to help fill the security gaps they saw.
A decade ago, military leaders began putting women service-members alongside men on the constantly shape-shifting battlefield that was Iraq and, later, Afghanistan. Then came the Female Engagement Teams in Afghanistan created to meet and listen to Afghan women and gather information about the communities in which NATO troops were operating. Their effectiveness won attention and support among top military brass and within the Afghan government, which sought to replicate the program among its own female forces.
History of Mesopotamia
These people founded the first dynasty of Babylon 19th—16th centuries , whose most important king was Hammurabi. In the 17th century new ethnic groups appeared in both Babylonia and Syria-Palestine: Kassites from the Zagros Mountains,… Foundation of the city At some time in the 4th millennium bce, the city was founded by settlers thought to have been from northern Mesopotamia, farmers still in the Chalcolithic phase of culture.
There is evidence that their occupation was ended by a flood, formerly thought to be the one described in Genesis. Ur in the early dynastic period, 29th—24th century bce In the next Early Dynastic period Ur became the capital of the whole of southern Mesopotamia under the Sumerian kings of the 1st dynasty of Ur 25th century bce. Excavation of a vast cemetery from the period preceding that dynasty 26th century produced royal tombs containing almost incredible treasures in gold, silver, bronze, and semiprecious stones, showing not only the wealth of the people of Ur but also their highly developed civilization and art.
The Harvard community has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters Citation Kopanias, Kostas, John MacGinnis, and Jason Ur (eds.). “Archaeological Projects in the Kurdistan Region in Iraq.” The Directorate of Antiquities of Kurdistan. culture and better definition of the.
Victory stele of Naram-Sin of Akkad. Bronze Age In the 26th century BC, Eannatum of Lagash created what was perhaps the first empire in history, though this was short-lived. Later, Lugal-Zage-Si , the priest-king of Umma , overthrew the primacy of the Lagash dynasty in the area, then conquered Uruk , making it his capital, and claimed an empire extending from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean.
From the 29th century BC, Akkadian Semitic names began to appear on king lists and administrative documents of various city states. It remains unknown as to the origin of Akkad, where it was precisely situated and how it rose to prominence. Its people spoke Akkadian , an East Semitic language.
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The legal status of women in the modern Middle East has been in transition since the early part of the twentieth century. Customary laws, Islamic laws, imported European laws, and reformed versions of Islamic laws affect women in” Varying degrees in the different Middle Eastern legal systems, and the status of women does not seem to have been settled in any of them.
Reddit Flipboard We have come across an unlikely band of brothers on the battlefield against terrorism. They are men of the cloth, a pair of padres, who go into harm’s way to find and protect ancient religious books and manuscripts. We joined them in a region of Iraq that was once Mesopotamia where human culture and learning really began. It’s believed to be the birthplace of mathematics, writing and agriculture and recently, the scene of some of the fiercest battles in the U.
I think it’s the graffiti that’s most horrifying to me. It was occupied and defaced by ISIS. They seem to wanna destroy everything Christian. Exactly — to delete our history. To say that there are no Christians, nothing before Islam. And even here, the statue of Virgin Mary — they destroyed it. It had amassed a collection of manuscripts dating back to the 12th century. In this kind of container As ISIS was closing in, the resident monks hid the texts in these barrels which they entombed behind a fake wall.